Study Notes – 98-366 Networking Fundamentals – The OSI Model

There’s been a lack of posts recently due to studying for university among other things, partly to get something new out and partly as a self-help tool I’m going to upload several articles that cover my study notes for the Microsoft 98-366 Networking Fundamentals course which I’m currently studying in depth to further aid my Systems Administration and Dynamics skills.

For some study material I’d highly suggest going to this link, which is a copy of the Microsoft Official Academic Course for Networking Fundamentals.

Hopefully this helps somebody else too, and if you spot any mistakes don’t hesitate to get in touch in the comments below.


The OSI Model

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model is comprised of seven layers which describe how data is passed and processed between one computer to another.

The OSI Model in some form was independently created by two organisations in the 1970s and merged into the single model that most people are familiar with in 1983 which was called ‘The Basic Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection’.

OSI Layers & Description


Although most often described from Layers 7 – 1 (Application – Physical) the actual order this model is utilized in differs depending on whether you are looking at the sending or receiving machine.


Not all communications between machines have to use all of the layers, if you Ping a machine for example only layers 1 to 3 would be used.

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